Definition of a recovery strategy of the three cultural sites nowadays underused, underexploited and in a different – but progressive – state of decay. The aim of this multidisciplinary research is twofold: (1) identify the intrinsic latent potential of these three Piedmonts’ cultural heritage; (2) design new strategy for the activation of the latent potential pursuing the preservation and the enhancement of the assets under investigation. The aim of the research project is to establish a link between the three sites and the resources of the territories, which are peripheral and affected by gradual tourist flows reduction. The project has three main objectives: (1) to improve the awareness and comprehension of the investigated cultural heritage; (2) to bring together heritage and landscape so as to offer new ways to benefit from their combined social, economic, cultural and environmental values; (3) to promote and diversify cultural tourism so as to balance the exploitation of the different cultural resources both in remote peripheral areas and high demand areas nowadays overexploited.
The Borgo Medievale is part of the museum circuit of Torino. The village is one of the most interesting projects of the Portuguese architect Alfredo d’Andrade. Built between 1882 and 1884, the project was designed for the Esposizione Generale Italiana. Through a collage of different selected existing medieval buildings spread in Piedmont, the Borgo is the reinterpreted reproduction of a medieval village. It was conceived as urban scenography to be demolished at the end of the exhibition. However it became public museum in 1942. Thanks to its location in the core of the Parco del Valentino and its high level of conservation, the Borgo Medievale is an open-air museum particularly appreciated. Nevertheless its current economic sustainability is put in crisis by the absence of marketing strategy. If the force of the Borgo Medievale is the free access of its open air spaces, the incomes related to the payment of the entrance ticket and of the rent of its spaces are insufficient for its maintenance.
What makes this case study particularly interesting is its proximity to the Reggia of Venaria Reale, one of the guiding lights of the investment policies on cultural heritage of the ‘90s and one of the most important royal residences that compose the Savoy corona di delizie surrounding Turin. From a geographical point of view, Borgo Castello is the core of the Parco La Mandria that borders the gardens of the Reggia. After the inclusion of the Reggia of Venaria Reale into the World Heritage List (1997), the great project of restoration and enhancement of the royal site begun. 250 millions euro were spent for the restoration and design of the Reggia and 80% of the allocated funds were from EU. While at the beginning the restoration project included the site of Borgo Castello, in 2005 the renovation of the site was abandoned for administrative and economical reason and all the funds were redirect to the Reggia. Since 2001, 60% of the buildings of Borgo Castello are now unfinished and unusable and are waiting for new funds. Nowadays only one third of the surfaces are used for cultural and administrative purposes. The unused and non-accessible parts are divided into two categories: those that are waiting for the completion of the works started and never completed; those that are waiting for a new intervention of restoration aimed at stopping their decline.
The Fenestrelle Fortress was erected from the XVIII century to the XIX century in Val Chisone. For its huge dimension it is called the great Piedmonts wall. In 2007, the World Monuments Fund has inserted the fortress into the list of 100 most important historical and archaeological sites of the world in danger. The Fenestrelle Fortress is made by three fortified complexes: the San Carlo, the Tre Denti and the Delle Valli, joined by a tunnel in which runs a covered staircase of 4,000 steps. The fortress has an area of 1,350,000
square meters and a length of 3 km spread over 650 m of elevation gain. After a long period of abandonment and decay, only in 1990 the fortress has reopen as touristic site visited by 20.000 people peryear. However the current tourist income is not sufficient for the maintenance of this huge fortify complex and a new strategic approach is needed.
The first results achieved from the three different tourist sites puts in evidence that it is necessary to: (1) establish an alliance with the tourist and local operators so as to be able to choose the suitable target of tourists; (2) design a territorial marketing not focused only on one specific asset but including the different resources offered by the territories; (3) not consider the quantity as the only criteria but identify the correct balance between tourism positive and negative impacts. New projects of adaptive reuse have to propose to stakeholder and policy makers a holistic governance approach, where value co-creation processes emerge from creative interactions among multiple stakeholders. The project of adaptive reuse, that has at its centre a npL to be preserved, identifying a new place brand, must involve actors such as residents, politicians, government organisations, promotion agencies, cultural and sport entities, delineating complex relationships among them. Without betraying the preservation the cultural heritage, the architectural project must stop be hiding itself behind the “sanctity”of its procedures in order to adhere to reality as much as possible.
E. Vigliocco (editor), Riattivazione di beni culturali non performanti // Non-performing cultural heritage reactivation, Quaderni di FULL, n. 4, Politecnico di Torino 2020.
M. Robiglio, R. Taramino, E. Vigliocco, G. Zotteri, Overtourism or Undertourism: what is the biggest crisis for a tourist destination?, in Book of Abstract 1st International Conference PROCEED WITH CARE: LIVING WITH TOURISM, Sibenik, 2-5 May 2019, pp. 84-85.
E. Vigliocco, R. Taramino, Non-performing cultural heritage enhancement, in International Conference Sense of past and sense of place Designing Heritage Tourism, Venice, 14-16.09.2020 – under double blind peer review evaluation.
M. Robiglio, R. Taramino, E. Vigliocco, G. Zotteri, Overtourism or Undertourism: what is the biggest crisis for a tourist destination?, in Proceedings of the 1st International Conference PROCEED WITH CARE: LIVING WITH TOURISM, Sibenik, 2-5 May 2019, to press.
M. Robiglio, E. Vigliocco, Activation strategies for non-performing cultural legacy, in A. Conte, A. Guida (editors), Re-USO Matera. Patrimonio in divenire. Conoscere, valorizzare, abitare, Gangemi Editore International, Roma 2019, pp. 2115-2126.
E. Vigliocco, Beyond museum / new strategies of preservation applied to oversized architectures, in 35° Intenational Conference SCIENZA E BENI CULTURALI, Bressanone, 25 July 2019, Edizione Arcadia RicercheS.r.l., Marghera Venezia 2019, pp. 59-68.